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MLA Style (9th edition)

This guide provides information and examples (in-text and Works Cited) to help you cite sources in MLA style. Why cite? Citing sources gives credit to the author(s) whose work you used to support your research.

MLA Style

MLA Style is the citation and format style developed by the Modern Languages Association. It provides standards to cite sources and a format for research papers. The examples shown here are based on those in the MLA Handbook, (9th edition). See the online edition, MLA Handbook Plus, for more information.  

Author Rules: Exceptions

Multiple authors -- In-text citations

(Author(s) page number).

Two authors: (Smith and Jones 34).

Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 39).

No Author

Use a shortened title of the work in place of the author name

("What we learned" 2).

Corporate Author

Use the name of the corporation instead of a personal name.

(Health Canada 7).

No page numbers

Some sources (such as web sources, streaming video) do not have page numbers. In these cases, simply cite the author only, in parentheses at the end of the sentence, or introduce the author in-sentence.

The report recommends "a complete rebuild of the Crown relationship with Canada's original inhabitants" (Cheadle).


Cheadle states that the report recommends a complete rebuild of the Crown relationship with Canada's original inhabitants".

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