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Chicago Style Citation

This guide provides information and examples (citation, footnote, bibliography, and formatting) to help you cite your sources in Chicago Style. Why cite? Citing sources gives credit to the author(s) whose work you used to support your research.

General Rules: Notes

For complete information, consult The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

All of the information in this guide refers to the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style.  For information on changes to The Chicago Manual of Style, see What’s New in the 17th Edition.

Citations in Chicago style use footnotes that appear at the bottom of the page.  A superscript number (example: 1) is placed in the body of the paper where a citation is needed, and refers the reader to a numbered footnote at the bottom of the page where the citation appears.   All items cited in the text will also appear in the Bibliography.  

A footnote contains the following:

1. FirstName Lastname, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication), page number.

The source will also be included in the bibliography using this format:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication.

OWL at Purdue provides a sample paper to illustrate how to set up your footnotes and bibliography with the correct indentations and spacing.

For information about inserting footnotes into your document, consult the MS Office Support footnotes documentation.

General Rules - First and Subsequent Notes

The first time you cite a source you will use a different format for your citation than for all subsequent citations.  The first time a source is cited, all bibliographic information is included as well as the page number.  A shortened citation is used every time the source is cited subsequently.  The shortened citation should include the author's last name(s), a shorted title of the work and the page number.

Please note: the Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition discourages the use of Ibid.

Example of a first citation:

 1.  Andrew C. Holman, Canada's Game: Hockey and Identity (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2009), 34.

Example of a subsequent citation:

4.  Holman, Canada's Game, 187.


General Rules - Authors

Multiple Authors

With 1 to 3 authors, list all authors in the note and in the Bibliography, in the order they appear. 

With 4 or more authors use the first author's name followed by “et al.” in the notes and use all authors’ names in the Bibliography.


1. R. Glenn Hubbard et al., Microeconomics, 3rd ed. (Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia, 2014), 323.


Hubbard, R. Glenn, Anne M. Garnett; Philip E. T. Lewis and Anthony Patrick O'Brien.  Microeconomics.  3rd ed. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia, 2014.


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